Social Cognitive Models of Self-Regulated Learning
As discussed earlier, previous research has turned to social cognitive model of self-regulated learning in further understanding the manner in which behavioural, motivational, and cognitive attributes contribute to performance in online and blended learning environments. Self-regulated learning is defined as “the process by which learners personally activate and sustain cognition affects, and behaviours that are systematically oriented toward the attainment of learning goals” (Zimmerman & Schunk, 2008, p. 2). Influenced by Bandura’s (1986) social cognitive theory, the social cognitive view of self-regulated learning characterizes self-regulated learning as a goal-oriented process and emphasizes the importance of goal orientation (Puustinen & Pulkkinen, 2001). Known for their contributions to the field of selfregulated learning, theorists Zimmerman (1989, 1998, & 2002) and Pintrich (1999, & 2004) have used the social perspective to develop their respected models of self-regulated learning.
Zimmerman’s Social Cognitive Model of Self-Regulation
Zimmerman’s (1989, 1998, 2002, & 2008) social cognitive model of self-regulation occurs across three cyclical phases, namely the forethought phase, performance phase, and self- reflection phase. As shown in Figure 1, goal setting and motivational factors such as self- efficacy (i.e., belief in one’s own ability) are major components in the forethought phase. Moreover, factors such as self-control and self-observation tend to play a major role during an implementation of behaviour (i.e., performance phase). The self-reflection phase is the final phase of Zimmerman’s model and it focuses on self-regulatory factors such as self-judgment and self-reaction.
Zimmerman’s model is a well-respected model and has been recognized as appropriate model for measuring self-regulation in face-to-face environments (Cleary & Zimmerman, 2004; Young & Ley, 2005; Zimmerman & Martinez Pons, 1986, 1998). However, Zimmerman did not quantify his measures and examined self-regulated learning from mainly a qualitative perspective (i.e., structured interviews). Alternatively, research examining the role of self-regulation in online and blended learning has primarily focused on empirical methods (i.e., quantitative research) to explore the self-regulatory processes of students. In doing so, research has relied on Pintrich’s model of self-regulated learning (1999, 2004). Pintrich’s model will be reviewed in the next post.